miércoles, 18 de abril de 2012

Domitila fue imprescindible para pasar de las botas a las urnas

El 17 de enero de 1978 fue un día que Domitila Barrios de Chungara nunca olvidó. Fue cuando escuchó la resolución presidencial que decretaba amnistía general, desmilitarización de las minas y liberación de los presos.

La huelga “de las mujeres” triunfaba sobre una dictadura que comenzaba a despedirse y en el piquete se mezclaban abrazos, risas y llantos.

Ya se habían anunciado las elecciones presidenciales para julio de ese año y Domitila, como muchas otras veces, desplegaba esa sonrisa invicta que la acompañó hasta el final de su vida. Ganaron. Ganó.

Los impulsos eléctricos (la famosa picana) que recibió en las torturas y las botas militares le costaron buena parte de la dentadura, pero ella jamás dejaba aquel gesto amable que exhibía piezas postizas y algún vacío. Era imposible no sonreír después de poner fin al banzerato.

A Bolivia le costó mucho volver a la democracia y el piquete de huelga que iniciaron Luzmila Rojas de Pimentel, Nelly Colque de Paniagua, Aurora Villarroel de Lora y Angélica Romero de Flores fue uno de los episodios decisivos (Chungara fue primero coordinadora y se unió después al grupo que ayunaba).

Fueron 18 años de cuartelazos, represión y masacres (1964-1982) que tuvo que resistir la emblemática líder del Comité de Amas de Casa de Siglo XX, la organización que crearon las esposas de los mineros para apoyar en la labor política en los centros mineros del norte de Potosí.

(1967) “El ampliado de los secretarios debía inaugurarse el día 25 de junio. Pero la víspera, al amanecer del 24, que es la fiesta tradicional de San Juan, cuando se hacen fogatas y todos acostumbramos servirnos unas copas con los vecinos, cantar y bailar, entró el Ejército y mató a mucha gente. Y a todas las personas que, según ellos, habíamos apoyado a las guerrillas nos agarraron, nos apalearon, nos maltrataron y a varios les mataron. A mí, por ejemplo, a patadas me hicieron perder a mi hijito en la cárcel, porque decían que yo era enlace guerrillero”.

Así relató Domitila lo que fue la masacre de San Juan en la entrevista que le hizo la brasileña Moema Viezzer y que se publicó en 1977 como el libro Si me permiten hablar...

Muchos años después, en 2004, Domitila creó el Movimiento Guevarista. La pérdida de un hijo, la cárcel y la masacre no lograron extinguir su compromiso con las ideas del Che.

Por ese tiempo también comenzó a impulsar la Escuela Móvil de Formación Política. La enfermedad, que la acompañó desde 1984, le impidió consolidar estos dos últimos proyectos.

Sus males empezaron en los días de tortura. Su insuficiencia renal, que le demandaba costosos tratamientos de hemodiálisis, fue por culpa de su paso por las celdas policiales y centros de reclusión de los militares.

Pese a que siempre dijo que prefería Catavi o Siglo XX antes que París o Estocolmo, tuvo que instalarse en la capital sueca en los años del exilio. Allí fue cuando compartió con Gabriel García Márquez, quien llegó a esa ciudad a recibir nada menos que el premio Nobel de Literatura.

De vuelta al país tuvo un paso corto por la democracia de partidos. Fue candidata a la Vicepresidencia de la República por el Frente Revolucionario de Izquierda. Sin embargo, 1985 no era tiempo para opciones desde el campo popular.

Esa vez sufrió el machismo y la discriminación de la partidocracia naciente. En las paredes escribían que ella y su compañero de fórmula tenían amoríos.

Nunca más participó en procesos electorales. Fue una luchadora social que siempre aclaró que no peleó para que los políticos se enriquezcan. “Ésta no es la democracia por la que luchamos”, le dijo a estudiantes en una visita que hizo a un colegio paceño a finales del siglo pasado. Su sonrisa invicta seguía allí.

Lo suyo no era la plata. Por eso fue que necesitó de la solidaridad cubana y de ex autoridades, como el ex ministro Óscar Coca, en estos últimos años.

Sin su vida militante, la democracia no cumpliría 30 años de vida ininterrumpida en este año.


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Publicado en Página Siete en marzo de 2012

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