lunes, 12 de diciembre de 2011

Crónicas de la SAID: de traiciones políticas, incendios y conciertos internacionales

 ABI

No habían pasado ni 100 días del Gobierno de la Unidad Democrática Popular (UDP), cuando el entonces vicepresidente Jaime Paz Zamora soltó una de sus frases más recordadas: El doctor Siles no me manda ni a comprar pan...

El jefe del MIR oficializaba la ruptura del binomio gobernante en una concentración de trabajadores fabriles en la fábrica SAID. Era diciembre de 1982 cuando comenzaba a desmoronarse el primer Gobierno de la democracia contemporánea. Dos años después, Hernan Siles aceptaba el acortamiento de su mandato.

Aquel histórico centro laboral no sólo fue una de las fábricas hilanderas más prósperas de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, sino también sede de episodios políticos decisivos en la historia del país y una de las víctimas de la instauración del neoliberalismo.

De hecho, Paz Zamora no fue el único gobernante en rendir cuentas ante los radicales trabajadores fabriles de la SAID. La tradición la empezó muchos años antes un pariente lejano suyo, el líder de la Revolución Nacional, Víctor Paz Estenssoro.

El histórico jefe del Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario vivió los días del triunfo de la insurrección popular desde Argentina y recién volvió después de que se consolidó en triunfo de la revuelta en abril de 1952.

Acompañado por Juan Lechín Oquendo -quien después se convertiría en el principal referente sindical del siglo pasado- Paz Estenssoro acudió a la SAID para pedir el respaldo de los trabajadores hacia el naciente Gobierno del MNR.

Los líderes de la Revolución también visitaron la hilandera Soligno, la fábrica Forno y la industria de vidrios. Paradójicamente, todas estas empresas tuvieron que cerrar sus puertas en otro Gobierno de Víctor Paz, cuando éste cambio la Revolución por el famoso Decreto Supremo 21060. La SAID nunca se recuperó del golpe. 

“Cometimos un grave error y muchos nos arrepentimos cuando nos dimos cuenta que combatimos contra nuestros intereses”, cuenta Fermín Quispe, uno de los obreros que fue parte de la hilandera en la década del 80.

Sucede que la SAID estuvo controlada por nada menos que el brazo trotskista más radical de aquel entonces: el POR-De Pie.

Encabezados por el secretario ejecutivo del sindicato de trabajadores de la fábrica y dirigente de aquella facción del Partido Obrero Revolucionario, Eduardo Siles, los fabriles combatieron al Gobierno de Siles y fueron partícipes de las movilizaciones que precipitaron su debacle y la llegada del MNR y la larga noche neoliberal.

La SAID tuvo que cerrar sus puertas definitivamente, al igual que la inmensa mayoría de fábricas de la zona norte de La Paz. La factoría, al igual que la Soligno, la Forno y otras tantas, se convirtió en un cementerio de maquinaria y triste depósito.

Uno de los obreros que quedó desempleado por aquel cierre fue el actual ministro de Trabajo, Daniel Santalla, quien militaba en el Partido Comunista y laboró 25 años en la SAID.

El tiempo de las celebraciones

Ustedes querían a Super Auto y aquí tienen a Super Auto. ¡Porque palabra empeñada es palabra cumplida!, gritó el presidente de la Asociación de Residentes de Achachachi en La Paz segundos antes de lanzarse de la tarima.

Una gran celebración se vivía en el patio principal de la ex fábrica SAID y había llegado el momento más importante: el concierto de los mexicanos Super Auto.

Los éxitos del conjunto de cumbia sonaban, mientras las cajas de cerveza y botellas de whisky Johnny Walker Black Label se repartían de manera indiscriminada entre los asistentes.

Aquella fiesta de enero de 2010 no era la primera visita del conjunto al lugar. Ya estuvieron en otras dos oportunidades para las fiestas de dos fraternidades que bailan morenada en el Gran Poder. Antes de ellos también estuvo Carro Show y los argentinos Sombras.

Esta clase de celebraciones con conjuntos internacionales no eran ninguna novedad para lo que ahora se llama Centro Comercial de La Paz (Cecolap). La ubicación y el tamaño del patio convirtieron al histórico centro fabril en el lugar ideal para conciertos y fiestas de fraternidades y asociaciones.

En los últimos años fue usual ver a la vieja fábrica rodeada por vendedoras de cerveza y puestos callejeros que sirven anticuchos.

De hecho, la más reciente tragedia en el lugar sucedió en medio de una celebración protagonizada por transportistas.

Los incendios y el fin...

Al año que viene, volveré a bailar, por ti // Al año que viene, volveré a llorar por ti....

Sonaba la morenada en el cierre de la tarde de ese domingo 20 de noviembre cuando una chispa fatal inició el incendio.

No era la primera vez. En los 70, todos los vecinos vieron cómo el algodón, los hilos y las máquinas ardían. Ese fue el primer encuentro de la fábrica con el fuego.

Esta vez ya no habían máquinas textiles, ni uniformes de obreros. El fuego consumía juegos pirotécnicos, equipos modernos de captura biométrica y juguetes que debían venderse en esta Navidad. 

La vieja fábrica que vio nacer y morir a la Revolución Nacional ardía de nuevo y, a diferencia del pasado, nadie sabe qué será de ella. 

La fortuna de los Said

En Bolivia
La SAID originó una fortuna inmensa

De acuerdo a la investigación del chileno Hugo Fazio (Mapa actual de la extrema riqueza en Chile, LOM-ARCIS, 1997), los Said (apellido árabe) llegaron a América Latina escapando de una invasión turca a Palestina.

Su primer punto de arribo fue Bolivia, donde iniciaron sus actividades como pioneros de la industria textil con la apertura, antes de la mitad del siglo XX, de la mítica fábrica de textiles SAID.

Donaciones
Los Said donaron una clínica de ojos

Los empresarios palestinos son recordados como patrones que pagaban bien al principio y ciudadanos que buscaban caer bien en Bolivia. Es por eso que, en 1939, donaron un edificio en lo que hoy es la avenida Bautista Saavedra, en Miraflores. Allí se inauguró el Hospital de Ojos “Said”. La Sociedad de Oftalmología de Bolivia recuerda que Isaac Said dotó de lo mejor en infraestructura para el centro médico, como una Lámpara de Hendidura Urslux y un retinógrafo a carbón Zeiss.

Poco después, los Said extendieron sus actividades comerciales hacia el Perú y posteriormente a Chile, donde lograron amasar una fortuna que ahora figura entre las más grandes de Ámérica Latina.

En Chile
Bancos y centros comerciales Said

En la actualidad, los descendientes de la familia Said son dueños de la cadena de centros comerciales Parque Arauco, una de las más prósperas en todo el territorio chileno.

Además, son socios del BHIF, red bancaria asociada con el BBVA. De acuerdo al estudio de Hugo Fazio, la fortuna de los Said es una de las más importantes de América Latina y todo empezó con una fábrica hilandera en La Paz.


Publicado en Página Siete el 10 de diciembre de 2011

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